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Sunday, August 26, 2012

Composite the ultimate material for minimally invasive dentistry(Hybrid Composites,Micro filled Composites,Nano filled composites)

Educational Objectives
Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to achieve the following:
• Understand what the three classification systems in composite materials and what their indications.
• Learn clinical tips for Class I and Class II direct posterior restorations.
• Learn layering techniques to build in dentinal lobes, incisal edge effects and incisal halos.
• Learn simple polishing techniques to create the appropriate finish and luster.
Introduction
Used in Class I, II and IV restorations in the posterior and anterior regions, composite resins represent an attractive restorative option for patients who desire minimally invasive treatment or cannot afford more costly indirect alternatives. Among the most versatile materials, composites might be used in direct restorations, build-ups, cements, diagnostic mock-ups, gingival stabilization, provisionals and prototypes. Although previous direct composite generations have demonstrated polymerization shrinkage and the potential for marginal leakage resulting in the development of secondary caries, their benefits today outweigh the risks, which can be avoided when proper materials and techniques are utilized. A viable solution to the problems of amalgam, including cusp fractures, increased rates of secondary caries and possible toxicity due to mercury content, has increased the demand for composite resins in recent years.
Composites
Conserving sound tooth structure and with the potential for tooth reinforcement, adhesively bonded composite restorations demonstrate aesthetically acceptable results. The least invasive and predictable restoration of teeth to normal form and function, tooth-colored composites provide patients and dentists with a cost-effective and long-lasting solution for a variety of indications.However, four parameters dictate an ideal composite material outcome:
• Mirror natural tooth structure in color and translucency.
• Strength to withstand function in high stress-bearing areas for the long term.
• Seamless or undetectable margins from restoration to tooth for the long term.
• Appropriate polish and luster that can be maintained throughout the life of the restoration.
Hybrids
Compared by the author to rocks with pebbles loaded between them, hybrids or microhybrids are heavy-loaded materials that display an average 1μ glass particle sizes and .04μ silica in resin.8,9 This class of materials demonstrates high strength and opacity similar to natural dentin and enamel. Less likely to chip, hybrids can provide strength in any of the functional areas and, through layering techniques, can mimic dentin and enamel morphology. A disadvantage, however, is that their polish is not long-lasting.
Microfills
Described as all pebbles and composed of an average 0.1μ glass particles in resin, microfills display high polishability that lasts for the long term.When compared to hybrids, microfills demonstrate a higher resistance to wear and a translucency similar to enamel. These materials also give dentists the ability to replace the color, translucency, polishability, wear resistance and surface texture of natural enamel. However, microfills lack the strength required for many of the functional areas and can be too translucent.
Nanofills (Nanohybrids)
A newer-class of composites, nanofilled materials display 20nm primary particle sizes, consisting of zirconia-silica nanoclusters and silica nanoparticles (0.01μ glass particles in resin). Because this material contains even smaller particles, it has the potential to maintain greater strength and long-term polishability.Therefore, according to the author’s analogy of rocks and pebbles, nanofilled composites would additionally have grains of sand. In this analogy, when wear does occur, only pebbles and grains of sand “pluck out” leading to more favorable mechanical and optical properties. Nanofilled composites also display opacity similar to natural enamel and dentin, with translucency similar to enamel.
Demonstrating high strength, nanofilled composites are less likely to chip in high stress areas.1 The only true disadvantage to nanofilled composites, however, is the lack of in-vivo long-term studies, since the material science is relatively new.When using the different types of composites, it is necessary to understand that both technique and material selection define the outcome. By using the proper composite, tints and opaquers, along with proper layering, customization and polishing, predictable restorative outcomes can be completed and maintained.
Aesthetics
Dentists must realize that there are many different characteristics of the teeth, which are key to understanding aesthetics, that need to be addressed during treatment planning. When recreating tooth shape, the line angle, outline form and profile must be considered, along with tooth proportions, which involves the width-to-length ratio. To develop proper symmetry, the tooth shape must be developed first, followed by the embrasures and contact point.
Another fundamental aspect of aesthetics, age and gender play important roles in the development of highly aesthetic and natural appearing restorations. For example, age should be a major consideration when building the central incisors, and gender should define the lateral incisors. Other aesthetic considerations should include the smile line, cant, tooth size, central dominance, axial inclination, reverse “S and S” line angles and the natural curvature of the dentition. The location and direction of the midline is also crucial to aesthetics and should be evaluated and developed prior to any preparation. Once the dentition is understood and a treatment plan developed, the facial characteristics of the patient and their skin tone must be evaluated. By doing so, harmony between the restorations and the patient’s facial features can be created to develop the best in aesthetics.
Basic Principles for Adhesive Dentistry
A rubber dam should always be used to isolate the preparation and stop contamination from blood and saliva. Rubber dams also provide the added benefit of preventing the patient from swallowing the potentially toxic mercury that is present in amalgam fillings. It is important to note that once removed, amalgam fillings should be disposed of properly. In 2007, the American Dental Association adopted “Best Management Practices for Amalgam Waste,” which include the voluntary use of amalgam separators. Additionally, the Environmental Protection Agency has been reviewing options for regulating the dental industry regarding mercury discharge, as well as for requiring the installation of amalgam separators.The author has an amalgam separator (DRNA ISO Certified BU10 Amalgam Separator, Dental CareWaste Management) in his office and encourages other practitioners to incorporate one in their practices also.
Adhesive Systems
Once rubber dam isolation is achieved, the preparation should be etched, primed and then bonded to provide the most predictable results.Of the adhesive systems available on the market today, total-etch, three-step systems are considered the “gold standard” and are the author’s preference for indirect restorations. These three-step systems come in two bottles and are indicated for use in all indirect and direct restorations. In comparison, a self-etching, two-step system, per the manufacturer, requires pre-etching on uncut enamel, essentially, from a technique standpoint, making a self-etching, two-step system a total-etch, three-step system.
Class-based Preparation and Placement
Class I
To begin preparation of Class I indications, previous restorations and any remaining decay are first removed. Bevels should not be used in these situations, and rounded line angles are required internally. An incremental filling technique must then be used when layering the new composite, being sure not to join the buccal-lingual walls. An example of this type of restorative procedure includes removing the decay and old restorations, then etching the dentin and enamel. The etchant is agitated while on the surface of the tooth and left for 15 to 30 seconds before being rinsed away. The dentin is then wet, followed by priming and bonding using a total-etch, one-bottle system. Multiple coats are placed and agitated before air-drying to remove the necessary contaminants (i.e., solvent).25 To seal the dentin and enamel, the bonding agent is light cured.
To build the restoration, the cuspal inclines are formed using a microhybrid or nanohybrid composite in appropriate shades and tints where desired. Each individual layer is light cured (ramp cured) through the tooth. The cuspal inclines are adjusted as necessary.
Class II
Like in Class I indications, the preparation for Class II restorations begins by removing amalgam or old composite and any remaining decay. Once again, no bevel is used, and rounded line angles are required. The enamel periphery ideally would demonstrate 0.5mm to 1.0mm of enamel in height and width at the gingival floor. Layering is similar to Class I restorations, with incremental filling without joining the buccal-lingual walls. For shading characteristics, 2+ shades of a microhybrid should be used, with incisal/translucent microhybrid or microfill layered over the restoration.
Today’s nanohybrid composites (Venus Diamond, Heraeus, South Bend, Illinois), however, can enable us to achieve such aesthetics with a single-layer composite material. To form the interproximal contact of Class II restorations, several options are available, including pre-wedge before the rubber dam is placed, a sectional matrix with proper wedging, and utilization of special instrumentation.An example of a clinical case involves first cutting out the old amalgam filling. The rubber dam is placed, all previous material and decay is removed, and the matrix is placed. The preparation is then etched for 15 to 30 seconds. After the etchant is rinsed away and the surface partially dried, the total-etch, one-bottle adhesive is applied to the preparation with agitation in multiple coats and, after 30 seconds, thinned with air to blow off the necessary contaminant (i.e., solvent). The adhesive is light cured, after which incremental filling begins, followed by carving to form anatomy. After proper anatomy is achieved and occlusion is checked, the tooth is etched again and glazed. A surface glaze (BisCover LV, BISCO) is then placed on the restoration to lessen micro-leakage and post-operative sensitivity. This incremental-oblique filling technique works well for Class II indications. Different from incremental-horizontal filling, the use of metallic bands with oblique increments lessens the polymerization shrinkage of composites and reduces the chance of microleakage.
In a clinical example of this type of indication and technique, the old filling and decay are removed first. A sectional matrix is then utilized, along with a wedge and oblique filling. Nanofilled composite material (Venus Diamond, Heraeus) is applied to the restoration, with an enamel layer over it.
Fig. 1: Rubber dam isolation of broken-down teeth and restorations on teeth #30 and #31.
Fig. 2: Incremental filling was achieved by developing dentin cuspal inclines on teeth #30 and #31.
Note the sectional matrix and wedge are used to assure proper interproximal contours.
Fig. 3: View of the completed, integrated restorations with appropriate marginal ridge contact and contours.
Class IV
Class IV indications typically require diastema closure or full veneers and can involve no preparation to a full 1+mm of reduction.To help with a seamless restoration, a starburst bevel of 2+mm should be utilized, except on the gingival margin if dentin is exposed.Layering should be completed with at least two shades of a microhybrid material, overlaid with incisal/translucency, or microfill, to create the dentinal lobes, incisal translucency and the incisal halo. However, today we can achieve this with a nanohybrid composite (Venus Diamond).
Undetectable Margins
When margins are in the aesthetic zone, a starburst bevel should be used, followed by etching beyond the bevel.The outer layer of composite should be rolled, while wearing clean gloves, to improve sculptability and prevent voids. The material should then be placed and super-cured, allowing five minutes or more for the material to settle. The margin should then be addressed first, finishing it back between where the etch and the bevel end. Rubber wheels and polishers should not be used on the margins, since the rubber tends to become embedded in this area.

Source : http://dentistryandmedicine.blogspot.in/search/label/Dental%20Materials

proffit 4th edition

Carranza 10th EDITION

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Atelectasis Partial lung collapse

Atelectasis is the collapse of part or (much less commonly) all of a lung.
 Atelectasis may be an acute or chronic condition. In acute atelectasis, the lung has recently collapsed and is primarily notable only for airlessness. In chronic atelectasis, the affected area is often characterized by a complex mixture of airlessness, infection, widening of the bronchi


Atelectasis

Partial lung collapse

Classification

Atelectasis may be an acute or chronic condition. In acute atelectasis, the lung has recently collapsed and is primarily notable only for airlessness. In chronic atelectasis, the affected area is often characterized by a complex mixture of airlessness, infection, widening of the bronchi (bronchiectasis), destruction, and scarring (fibrosis).


Chronic atelectasis may take one of two forms—middle lobe syndrome or rounded atelectasis. In right middle lobe syndrome (also known as Andy Wilson's Disease), the middle lobe of the right lung contracts, usually because of pressure on the bronchus from enlarged lymph glands and occasionally a tumor. The blocked, contracted lung may develop pneumonia that fails to resolve completely and leads to chronic inflammation, scarring, and bronchiectasis.
In rounded atelectasis (folded lung syndrome), an outer portion of the lung slowly collapses as a result of scarring and shrinkage of the membrane layers covering the lungs (pleura). This produces a rounded appearance on x-ray that doctors may mistake for a tumor. Rounded atelectasis is usually a complication of asbestos-induced disease of the pleura, but it may also result from other types of chronic scarring and thickening of the pleura.


Absorption Atelectasis

The atmosphere is composed of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. Since oxygen is exchanged at the alveoli-capillary membrane, nitrogen is a major component for the alveoli's state of inflation. If a large volume of nitrogen in the lungs is replaced with oxygen, the oxygen may subsequently be absorbed into the blood reducing the volume of the alveoli, resulting in a form of alveolar collapse known as absorption atelectasis.


Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Atelectasis is caused by a blockage of the air passages (bronchus or bronchioles) or by pressure on the outside of the lung.
It is common after surgery, or in patients who were in the hospital.
Risk factors for developing atelectasis include:
  • Anesthesia
  • Foreign object in the airway (most common in children)
  • Lung diseases
  • Mucus that plugs the airway
  • Pressure on the lung caused by a buildup of fluid between the ribs and the lungs (called a pleural effusion)
  • Prolonged bed rest with few changes in position
  • Shallow breathing (may be caused by painful breathing)
  • Tumors that block an airway

Symptoms

  • Breathing difficulty
  • Chest pain
  • Cough

Signs and tests

  • Bronchoscopy
  • Chest CT scan
  • Chest x-ray

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to re-expand the collapsed lung tissue. If fluid is putting pressure on the lung, removing the fluid may allow the lung to expand.
The following are treatments for atelectasis:
  • Clap (percussion) on the chest to loosen mucus plugs in the airway
  • Perform deep breathing exercises (with the help of incentive spirometry devices)
  • Remove or relieve any blockage by bronchoscopy or another procedure.
  • Tilt the person so the head is lower than the chest (called postural drainage). This allows mucus to drain more easily.
  • Treat a tumor or other condition, if there is one
  • Turn the person to lie on the healthy side, allowing the collapsed area of lung to re-expand
  • Use aerosolized respiratory treatments (inhaled medications) to open the airway
  • Use other devices that help increase positive pressure in the airways and clear fluids (positive and expiratory pressure [PEP] devices)

Expectations (prognosis)

In an adult, atelectasis in a small area of the lung is usually not life threatening. The rest of the lung can make up for the collapsed area, bringing in enough oxygen for the body to function.
Large areas of atelectases may be life threatening, especially in a baby or small child, or someone who has another lung disease or illness.
The collapsed lung usually reinflates slowly if the blockage of the airway has been removed. However, some scarring or damage may remain.

Complications

Pneumonia may develop quickly after atelectasis in the affected part of the lung.

Prevention

  • Encourage movement and deep breathing in anyone who is bedridden for long periods.
  • Keep small objects out of the reach of young children.
  • Maintain deep breathing after anesthesia.

Friday, August 17, 2012

NASAL TEETH - A RARE CASE

                                Eruption of the teeth into the nasal cavity is a rare phenomenon.Ectopic tooth eruption in a non-dental area is a rare entity,  whereas in oral cavity it is most common. The ectopic development of teeth in non-dental localizations have been reported in the nasal cavity, chin, maxillary sinus, mandibular bone, palate and orbital cavity.


INTRODUCTION : 

Ectopic tooth eruption in a non-dental area is a rare entity, whereas in oral cavity it is most common. The ectopic development of teeth in non-dental localizations have been reported in the nasal cavity, chin, maxillary sinus, mandibular bone, palate and orbital cavity.

 THE ABOVE PHOTOGRAPH DEPICTS THE NASAL ERUPTION OF THE TEETH IN A 8YR OLD BOY



The standard treatment for an ectopic tooth is extraction of the tooth.Facial pain, epistaxis, purulent rhinorrhoea, external nasal deformity, headache, swelling and epiphora related nasolacrimal duct obstruction can be seen.





                                Some of the eruptions may be seen in the sinus's too.



Tooth development results from an interaction between the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchymal tissue. This process begins in the sixth week in utero with the formation of maxillary and mandibular dental lamina in the region of the future alveolar process. This ectodermal derivative undergoes proliferation to form the permanent dentition between the 5 th and 10 th months, each mature tooth consisting of a crown and a root. Abnormal tissue interactions during development may potentially result in ectopic tooth development and eruption. Ectopic eruption of a tooth into a region other than the oral cavity is rare although there have been reports of tooth in the nasal septum, mandibular condyle, coronoid process . and the palate. Occasionally, the tooth may erupt into the maxillary antrum and present with local sino-nasal symptoms attributed to recurrent or chronic sinusitis. The diagnosis of this condition can be made radiographically with plain sinus X-rays and CT scans taken in axial and coronal sections.

Dentigerous cyst is the most common of all follicular cysts, more common in males, occurring in the second or third decade of life. About 70% of dentigerous cysts occur in the mandible and 30% in the maxilla.  If infected, the treatment of choice is complete enucleation of the lesion intraorally with removal of the associated tooth. It is also important to completely remove all diseased antral tissues and thoroughly assess all resected soft tissue histologically. Only a few cases of "ectopic" molars which have been displaced by progressively growing dentigerous cysts have been reported in medical literature.  It is believed that the displacement of tooth buds by the expansion of these dental cysts results in the displacement of the tooth to other areas, which is attributed to the ectopic appearance of the third molar in this patient. Recurrence and malignant or ameloblastic transformation following a dentigerous cyst is rare when compared to odentogenic keratocyst. Close observation and follow-up with periodic radiographs is required.

The treatment of an ectopic tooth in the maxillary sinus is usually removal, as if left untreated, it has the tendency to form a cyst or tumor. Caldwell-Luc procedure was followed in this case as the ectopic tooth was the cause of recurrent sinusitis and purulent rhinorrhea inspite of administering antibiotics repeatedly. The importance of ruling out related dental conditions in any patient presenting with such signs and symptoms of the head and neck region cannot be overemphasized.

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

What should you wear ?

Medical professions often require their workers to wear uniforms or other special types of clothing due to the nature of the work. Dentists are one such profession and often wear such things as scrubs and lab coats. They may also choose to have a more standard professional appearance.

Scrubs

Standard scrubs are the typical attire for dentists. Scrubs consist of a pair of pants and a top. Tops may be either short or long sleeve depending on the individual's preference. Pants are always long. Scrubs come in a variety of colors and patterns. White and various shades of blue seem to be the most commonly worn, but these are by no means the only colors worn by dentists. Patterns range from cartoon and movie characters to seasonal prints. Women also have more choices when it comes to styles. They can choose from stereotypical scrub tops or ones that look more like everyday fashion tops made from scrub material.

Lab Coats

Dentists often wear lab coats over their scrubs. Lab coats are white and will have either a breast pocket, a pocket at each hip or both. They can be plain or have the dentist's name embroidered on it. Some women's lab coats also have decorative embroidery in the form of flowers or swirly designs. Any of these can be worn, depending on the dentist's preference.

Professional Clothing

Some dentists do not wear scrubs and instead opt for what is more generally considered to be professional clothing. In this case, collared shirts or sweaters worn with dress pants or a skirt for women would be typical attire. Dentists are likely to wear their lab coat over their regular clothes.

Shoes

Dentists may wear shoes specifically designed for medical professionals. Though they are listed as "nursing shoes" on medical-clothing websites, they can be worn by medical professionals other than nurses as part of their work uniform. Nursing shoes are often made of rubber or leather and resemble clogs. In most cases, these are black or white, but women's styles may be offered in a variety of colors and patterns. Female dentists may also choose to wear Mary-Jane style nursing shoes. Plain black or white athletic shoes are worn as well. If the dentists are wearing regular professional -style clothing instead of scrubs, they may wear nursing shoes, loafers or any regular style of shoe that is designed to be comfortable. Shoes such as flip flops, sandals and high heels are not likely to be worn for safety reasons.



Source: Leena Tanner, e-how.com

Indian doctor becomes WHO’s Deputy Director General

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