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Thursday, March 29, 2012

Nanotechnology-the Era Of Molecular Dentistry

Abstract
 Dentistry has seen many era of revolution in past, making it more reliable and comfortable for the patients. It is undergoing yet another change in helping mankind, this time with the help of nanotechnology combined with Nonomaterial's, Biotechnology and Nanorobotics. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanotissue devices which will allow precisely controlled oral analgesia, dentine replacement therapy, permanent hypersensitivity cure, complete orthodontic realignment etc, all in single office visit.


Introduction
"Greatness does not come from size. Surprises come in small packages."The word nano is derived from Greek word "dwarf". The term nanotechnology was coined by Prof Keric E Dexler a lecturer, researcher and writer of nanotechnology. Nanotechology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. It is measured in the billionths of meters or nanometer, roughly the size of two or three atoms. Nanomaterials are the materials with components less than 100 nm in at least one dimension, including clusters of atoms, grains less than 100 nm in size, fibres less than 100 nm diameter, films less than 100 nm in thickness, nanoholes and composites that are a combination of these.

History
In 1959, the late Nobel Prize winning physicist Richard P. Feynman presented a talk entitled "There's plenty of room at the bottom" at the annual meeting of the American physical society. Feynman proposed using machine tools to make smaller machine tools, which, in turn, would be used to make still smaller machine tools, and so on all the way down to the molecular level. He suggested that such nanomachines, nanorobots and nanodevices ultimately could be used to develop a wide range of atomically precise microscopic instrumentation and manufacturing tools. Feynman argued that these tools could be applied to produce vast quantities of ultra small computers and various micro scale and nanoscale robots. He concluded that this is "a development which I think cannot be avoided," and the vision of nanotechnology was born.1
Nanotechnology aims to manipulate and control particles to create novel structure with unique properties and promises advances in medicine and dentistry. Nanodentistry will make possible the near perfect oral health through the use of Nanomaterials, Biotechnology including Tissue engineering and Nanorobotics.

Nanomaterials: Nanomaterials are those materials with components less than 100 nm in at least one dimension, including clusters of atoms, grains, fibres, films, nanoholes, and composites that are a combination of these


Figure 1: Nanoparticles In Various Shapes Sheets, Rods, Grains, Etc.

These nanomaterials if present in one dimension are called as sheets, if in two dimensions are nanowires and nanotubes, if present in three dimensions are called as quantum dots.
The various nanostructures are 2
  • Nanopores
  • Nanotubes
  • Quantum dots 
  • Nanoshells 
  • Dendrimers

These various nanostructures (nanodiagnostic aids) have an ability to diagnose a disease in early phase of development. These nanodevices also decipher the encoded information from the bases making up genetic codes underlying the pathogenesis of cancer.
Application of nanodentistry in Oral Diagnosis and Therapeutics 
1. Photosenstizer and carriers: Quantum dots can be used as a photosenstizer and carriers. They can bind the antibody to surface of target cell and when stimulated by ultraviolet light, they give rise to reactive oxygen species which are lethal to target cells.3
2. Nanotherapeutics: These are the highly specific and targeted drug delivery systems. Nanotechnology in field of therapeutics will help to solve the solubility problems, reduce the drug dosages and minimise the side effects.3-5 They will be effective in treatment of brain disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease etc.
3. Treatment of oral cancer: Nanotechnology in field of cancer therapeutics has offered highly specific tools in the form of multifunctional Dendrimers and Nanoshells. The unique property of Dendrimers such as their high degree of branching, multi valence, globular structure and well defined molecular weight make them promising in cancer therapeutics.6,7

Nanoshells are miniscule beads with metallic outer layers designed to produce intense heat by absorbing specific wavelengths of radiations that can be used for selective destruction of cancer cells leaving aside intact, adjacent normal cells. 6,7

Application of nanodentistry in clinical dentistry8, 9:
1. Nanocomposites: Composite with nanofillers has two types of nanofillers- nanomeric and nanocluster type. Trade name:  Filtek Supreme universal restorative pure nano

Advantages 
  • High filler loading
  • Desirable handling characteristics
  • Superior physical properties like modulus of elasticity and flexural strength etc.
  • High polish retention because of nanosize fillers which even if get plucked away by tooth brush abrasion, leave the surface with defects smaller than the wavelength of light.
  • Higher translucency giving it  more lifelike appearance
  • 50% reduction in curing shrinkage 

2. Nanoadhesives: They are nanosolutions which produce unique and dispersible nanoparticles which prevent agglomerations.
Advantages:
  • Higher dentine and enamel bond strength
  • High stress absorption
  • Longer shelf life
  • Durable marginal seal
  • No separate etching required
  • Fluoride release

3. Nanoimpression materials: Nanoimpressions are available with nanofillers integrated in the polyvinyl siloxane producing a  unique addition siloxane impression materials. (Nano Tech Elite H-D+).
Advantages:
  • Better flow 
  • Improved hydrophilic properties  and hence few voids at margins and better model pouring

4. Dentifrices: They are nanosized hydroxyapetite crystals. These Dentifrices form a protective coating on tooth enamel and even restore the surfaces of damaged teeth. Dentifrices like Microbrite has microhydrin which consists of molecular cages, 1-5 nanometer in diameter and degrade the organic food particles.

5. Materials to induce bone growth: Calcium sulphate is used to fill small voids such as those found in post extraction sockets and periodontal bone defects and as adjunct to the longer lasting bone graft materials. Dr Ricci has formulated new calcium sulphate based composite. Bone Gen -TR which resorbs more slowly and regenerates bone more consistently.

6. Orthodontic wires: Sandirk Nanoflex is a new stainless steel which allows ultra-high strength combined with good deformability, corrosion resistance and a good surface finish.

7. New electrochemical process for coating implants: Prof Noam Eliaz is behind this innovation and he found that the new implant improves function and longevity. In this process there is electrochemical deposition of   synthetic hydroxypatite over the implant surface. These new implants are more acceptable to human body as these are able to enhance the integration of the nanocoatings to the human tissues. These nanocoatings very much resemble with the biological materials.

8. Bone replacement materials : Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles used to treat bone defects are-
  • Ostim® (Osartis GmbH, Germany) HA,
  • VITOSSO (Orthovita, Inc, USA)
  • HA +TCP NanOSSTM (Angstrom Medica, USA) HA

9. Nano sterilizing solution: Gandly Enterprises Inc Florida has introduced a new disinfectant based on super science of nanoemulsion technology. It uses nanosized emulsifier droplets of oil that bombard the pathogens. e.g. Eco Tru Disinfectant.

Advantages: 
  • Broad spectrum
  • Hypoallergic
  • Noncoroding
  • Does not stain fabric
  • Require no protective clothing
  • Environment friendly
  • Compatible with various impression materials


Applications of nanorobotics to dentistry10:
Around 10-20 years from today. Dental Nanorobots will be constructed. Nanorobots might use specific motility mechanism to crawl and swim through human tissues with navigational precision. These nanorobots will acquire energy, sense and manipulate their surroundings and pass through the odontoblastic process without disrupting the cells.
Nanorobotic function may be controlled by onboard computers that execute pre-programmed instructions in response to local sensor stimuli. Dentist may issue instructions by transmitting orders directly to in-vivo nanorobots via acoustic signals.

Nanorobots


Applications of Nanorobotics to Dentistry
1. Inducing local anaesthesia: 
To induce local anaesthesia in the era of nanodentistry, colloidal suspension containing millions of active analgesics micron size dental nanorobots will be installed on the patient's gingiva which will crawl through mucosa, lamina propria and dentine painlessly reaching the pulp in around 100s sec. Upon reaching the pulp these tiny machines will establish control over nerves impulse traffic which in turn will be controlled by the dentist on board. When the dentist presses the icon for the desired tooth on the hand held controller display, the selected tooth will numb immediately. After the oral procedures are complete, the dentist orders the nanorobots to restore all sensations, to egress from the tooth by similar pathways used for ingress.

Advantages:
  • Greater patient comfort
  • No anxiety, no needles
  • Greater control of analgesia
  • Fast and completely reversible
  • No side effects and complications

2. Dentin Hypersenstivity:
It is a pathological phenomenon. It is caused by pressure transmitted hydrodynamically to the pulp.Main hypersensitive tooth has dentinal tubules with surface densities will be  eight times higher than those of nonsensitive teeth.Dental nanorobots can selectively and precisely occlude the specific tubules within a minute offering patients a quick and permanent cure.

3. Orthodontic Robots: 
Orthodontic robots can directly manipulate the periodontal tissues,including gingivae,periodontal ligament,cemental and alveolar tissues allowing rapid repair and painless tooth straightening,rotating and vertical repositiong within minutes to hours.
4. Nanorobotic dentrifices :
Nanorobotic dentrifices delivered by mouthwash or tooth paste can cover all subgingival surfaces, metabolizing trapped organic matter into harmless and oodourleses vapors.Properly configuered dentifrorobots can identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria existing  in the plaque and elsewhere. They will also provide a barrier to halitosis. Nanoneedles; Suture needles incorporating nano-sized stainless steel crystals have been developed. Nanotweezers are also under development which will make cell-surgery possible in the near future. Trade name: Sandvik Bioline, RK 91TM needles [AB Sandvik, Sweden].

Nano Tisssue Engineering
We are not far away when we will be able to generate whole new tooth with the principles of genetic engineering, tissue engineering and tissue regeneration by manipulating cellular and mineral components at nanoscale. Chen et al by using nanorods like calcium hydroxyapatite crystals which were oriented roughly parallel to each other, were able to simulate the natural bio mineralization process and create hardest tissue in human body, i.e., dental enamel

Tooth Repair:
Major tooth repair will be possible through the combination of nanotechnology, genetic engineering and tissue engineering and later on whole tooth will be grown in vitro and installed in oral cavity. So complete dentition replacement therapy should become possible to understand within the time and economic constraints of an ordinary office visit, using an affordable desktop manufacturing facility in the dentist office.

Conclusions :
Naodentistry still faces many significat challenges in realizing its tremendous potential. There are larger social issues of public acceptance,ethics,regulations and human safety that must be addressed before molecular nanotechnology can enter the modern medical armamentarium. However there are equally powerful motivations to surmount these various challenges,such as the possibility of providing high quality dental care to the large amount of world population. Time, specific advances,financial and scientific resources and human need will determine which of the applications described in this article are realized first.
 


Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Top 10 qualities to be a succesful Dentist

In..today's changing world where most of the people are taking career in dentistry as a nice paying profession,some light has to be focused on the qualities we must posses to be best at what we do.
I want to call this 'unfortunate' as we don't have any training sessions to develop these qualities in our dental syllabus, these qualities must be cultivated by own.

At this high time when dental colleges have  mushroomed every where and thousands of dentists coming out every year and there is 'so called raising competition'  if you really want to make difference then having a degree is not enough.
I call it "Passion" you have to be passionate about dentistry.Ask yourself Will I do it even if I don't get paid? Do I like it so much? if answer is yes then 'You are Passionate enough' .here are some qualities you need to develop.

  • 1. Has a Good Manner: A great medical professional has a good manner and makes patients feel comfortable and at ease during exams and treatments.
  • 2. Has a Sense of Empathy: A great medical professional has a strong sense of empathy and understands what it is to feel pain and suffering. They are supportive and have a genuine interest in improving a patient's well-being.
  • 3. Has Great Communication Skills: A great medical professional has excellent communication skills. They can explain complicated medical terminology in laymen's terms to the average patient. They also have excellent listening skills and take the time to understand what a patient's needs are.
  • 4. Has Sharp Problem Solving Skills: A great medical professional has excellent problem solving skills and can quickly determine solutions to problems. Working in health care, by definition, involves solving problems of the human body.
  • 5. Is Always Very Thorough: A great medical professional is always very thorough in their work. They recognize that the smallest oversight can have grave consequences and therefore are sure to cover all the bases in everything they do.
  • 6. Offers Support for Patient Decisions: A great medical professional acts as a partner with a patient in treatment decisions and understands that ultimately, all decisions lie in the hands of the patient. They offer full support of patient decisions.
  • 7. Offers Time to Patients: A great medical professional spends adequate time with their patients and never rushes through an exam during a busy day. They give each patient enough time to make a proper diagnosis or to offer a thorough treatment.
  • 8. Possesses Significant Knowledge: A great medical professional has extensive knowledge of the human body and its ailments. They are not afraid to admit when they do not know something and will either research it or refer a patient to someone better qualified.
  • 9. Possesses Strong Sense of Ethics: A great medical professional has a strong sense of ethics and never compromises their integrity or values.
  • 10. Pursues Continuing Education: A great medical professional recognizes that the medical field is full of new research and developments, and they stay on top of everything new in the field. They read research journals and take training classes to stay current.

How to use digital X-ray Or RVG with Apple iPad , iPhone. The Kodak RVG 6500

iPad

Innovation is the key to development and dentistry is not an exception.First there was no radiograph then came conventional radiograph then came high speed radiograph and Digital radiograph or RVG and now Apple iPad.
You will say (What ! an iPad?) yes an iPad. It's an innovation by Apple inc.which has been accepted by medical and dental field warmly.I have discussed How to upgrade your dental practice with Apple iPad in earlier post and written about the change this gadget can bring.You can check 10 free iPad application for dentists
Today in Digital Radiograph or RVG we shoot an X-ray few moments later it appears on the computer screen and then you interpret it and discuss it with your patients.
Now Kodak have made a RVG system which is iPad compatible and if you have an iPad or iPhone you can see and review this X-ray image directly on your gadget write reports and save it.
You must have Two thing for it.


1.RVG Mobile software in your iPad 
2.Kodak RV 6500


1.RVG Mobile Software  by  Trophy, A Subsidiary of Carestream Health, Inc. Free!
The RVG Mobile application is a unique image acquisition and review software for dental professionals who use the KODAK RVG 6500 System.

Designed for dental professionals who use the KODAK RVG 6500 Sensor, the RVG Mobile application allows users to acquire, display, and review RVG x-ray images directly on their iPod Touch or iPhone.

For reviewing purposes only, the RVG Mobile application is also available to those who use the KODAK RVG 5100 and RVG 6100 sensors. After acquiring x-ray images on a computer, the dedicated transfer interface* wirelessly submits them to the user's iPod touch or iPhone-providing remote access to clinical

 images.
The transfer interface is included with KODAK Dental Imaging Software, version 6.12 and higher. The feature is not compatible with versions prior to 6.12.

Additional features include:
- Create and transfer patient cards
- Add comments to the x-ray images
- Upload images to your iPod or iPhone

Usability requirements:
- Wi-Fi connection
- KODAK RVG 6500 System



The new RVG 6500 system includes the latest innovations from the company 
that invented digital radiography. 
• An Intelligent Positioning System that reduces retakes
• Wireless mobility that makes your opertories cable-free
• iPad image acquisition for better portability and patient communication
• Film-quality images that you’ve come to expect from the entire RVG family of sensors



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Relationship of Alcoholism with Dental implant success rate.

Dental implant is one of the Procedure many dentists are doing and rest are planning to do.Dental implants are frequently the best treatment option for replacing missing teeth? but for the beginners its important  to notice that job is not done until the Osseointegration is completed.Numerous studies have been done on animals to confirm the problems that excessive drinking can cause.The studies referenced here have to do with long-term effects on dental implants.  Alcohol effects the bone repair around dental titanium implants. The AAOMS, American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, confirms that dental implants are composed of titanium metal that "fuses" with the jawbone through a process called "osseointegration."

According to studies done on rats at the Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Research Institute Codivilla-Putti, in Bologna, ItalyAlcohol abuse affects bone repair and decreases the ability to form bone around standard titanium
A study at the Oral Surgery Department, School of Dentistry, Cartuja University Campus, University of Granada, Granada, Spain says that -Results indicate that daily alcohol consumption and tobacco use may have a negative influence on predictable long-term implant treatment outcomes, producing peri-implant bone loss and compromising restorative treatment with implant-supported prostheses

alcohol and implant
There is a good news - Alcoholism may effect the implant integration but it does not have any relation with the cancer development around the implant.According to JADA, Journal of the American Dental Association, the development of squamous cell carcinoma around dental implants, either endosseous or transosseous, is an uncommon pathological manifestation with only a few cases described in the literature.  Usually, these cases are associated with a history of oral cancer or smoking.
So next time when you place implant don't forget to take history about alcoholism and inform your patient its effects in the success of the treatment.

Image credit & [References] American association of oral and Maxillofacial surgeons Dental health topics ,Journal of American Dental association ,Uk Pubmed Central

List of 40 Dental websites worth checking!

Links to Dental sites
Please inform me here for any broken links. This pagoe is worth bookmarking.
  1. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  2. American Dental Association - ADA Online
  3. American Dental Hygienists’ Association 
  4. APCD - São Paulo Dental Association
  5. Austria Dental Hygienist Association (VDHO) 
  6. Australian Dental Industry Association
  7. BetterOralHealth.info
  8. British Dental Association
  9. British Society of Dental Hygiene & Therapy 
  10. British Dental Trade Association
  11. British Society of Dentistry for the Handicapped
  12. Canadian Dental Assistants' Association (CDAA)
  13. Canadian Dental Hygienists Association 
  14. Country/Area Profile Programme - WHO Oral Health
  15. CDC—Oral Health Division
  16. CrownCouncil.com
  17. DentalHygienists.ch (Switzerland) 
  18. Dental Hygienists’ Association of Australia 
  19. Dental Practice Board
  20. Dental-Resources.com
  21. DentalSite.com — Dental Hygienist Resources
  22. Dental Technicians Association of Australia
  23. DentalHygienistUSA.com
  24. German Dental Hygiene Association (DDHV eV) 
  25. Hispanic Dental Association
  26. Israel Dental Hygienist Association 
  27. Ms. Flossy's Dental Hygiene News
  28. National Dental Hygiene Certification Board (Canada)
  29. National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center (USA)
  30. National Museum of Dentistry — University of Maryland
  31. Norsk Tannpleierforening (Norway) 
  32. Odontologi Internet (Sweden)
  33. PerioConcepts, PLLC (USA)
  34. Periodonticsonline.com (USA)
  35. PerioReports.com
  36. Portuguese Association of Oral Hygienists 
  37. Singapore Dental Association
  38. Sveriges Tandhygienistforening (Sweden) 
  39. ToothFairy.org
  40. WomenDentists.org

'Save a tooth Save a life' - One of a kind tooth stem cells bank BioEDEN

Stem cell treatment using specialist human cells to repair or replace damaged tissues or organs is the cornerstone of future medical science. Children’s milk teeth, (baby teeth) have been identified as a rich source of these stem cells and have the potential to treat some of the worst illnesses and diseases facing people today.
The world’s first specialist tooth cell banking company, BioEDEN offers a simple, yet highly efficient method of collecting, isolating, growing and storing these powerful baby tooth cells for use by the original donor and potentially their immediate family should they ever be needed in the future. Tooth cell banking is a proactive decision being made by parents all over the world who recognise years of potential health benefits for their child in return for simply saving their baby teeth.
Pioneered by BioEDEN, tooth cell banking is a safe, natural and wholly non-invasive method of collecting and preserving precious stem cells which could hold the key to your child’s health. Watch the video here

Stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms. They are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types. Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s.[1][2] The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues.
In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. Stem cells can now be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are routinely used in medical therapies. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. From Wikipidea Read more here :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell

About tooth cells

Stem cell therapy, without the fear of rejection, offers one of the most promising paths to curing medical conditions, injures and diseases and safeguarding the health of future generations. An ongoing supply of healthy cells is therefore essential.
In humans, stem cells can be found in many different parts of the body, typically bone marrow, blood and umbilical cord blood. Now baby teeth have been proven to provide an abundant source of adult stem cells with the potential to treat and cure a vast number of illnesses and diseases.
The pulp of children’s baby teeth generally contains a range of valuable adult stem cells including:

Mesenchymal stem cells(Image property of BioEDEN)
Mesenchymal stem cells
Cells with the ability to develop into a wide range tissues
Chondrocytes (Image property of University of Guelph, Canada)
Chondrocytes
Cells with the ability to generate cartilage and therefore ideal for arthritis or joint injuries
Osteoblasts (Image property of University of Pretoria, South Africa)
Osteoblasts
Cells with the ability to generate bone
Adipocytes (Image property of University of Guelph, Canada)
Adipocytes
Cells with the ability to repair damaged cardiac tissue for example after a heart attack. They are also ideal for reconstructive surgery of the face.

Use MTA in Your Endodontic cases [Simplified Guide]

Many Dentists have written a lot about MTA and there are tons of theory in the books and internet for you. Ill not provide with notes of MTA. 
So why read this post ? 

Read this post because ill tell you about clinical application of this material - How to use MTA? Where to use MTA ? How to Manipulate MTA. Advantages and Disadvantages of MTA.


MTA stands for Mineral Trioxide Aggregate.
It was 1993 when Torabinejad first introduced MTA in dental field. Technically its nothing but a super fine and modified "Portland cement" what we find in hardware stores. 
Endodontics need precision and care, Miscalculation of 1mm can increased the chances of failure.


Composition-   Tricalcium  Silicate
                      Tricalcium aluminate
                      Tricalcium Oxide
                      Silicate Oxide
                      Bismuth Oxide- radio opaque
                      Small amount of other mineral oxide
On hydration of this powder it forms colloidal gel, on solidification this mass forms a impermiable barrier. After solidification it reaches to pH of 12.5 which is similar to CaoH.            


Clinical application-
Cases of Root perforation-Its healing results are remarkable.
Root End feeling material in open apex. ( Apexogenesis )
Vital pulp therapy- Direct pulp therapy
Teeth with open apices and necrotic pulps (Apexification)
Pulp Capping
Pulpotomy
Furcation Perforation
Extra-Radicular perforation repair
Surgical root repair
Internal resorption repair


How big the exposure should be 
The size of the exposure can be 0.5 mm (the tip size of a perio probe) to 4 mm with the same success


Before application
Thoroughly disinfect the area with Sodium hypochlorite
Arrest any hemorrhage by applying pressure with cotton pulg or by using suproxol 


How to mix
[Note- Every company provide their proper manipulation guide with the packet follow it for best result and for idea read following]


It comes in pouches so  open one 
Mix with the water ampule (sterile water) provided or you can buy it from the medical store and get to a creamy consistency
powder liquid ratio is 3:1
you can use perio-probe, excavators or cement carrier - what ever suits you to place it and condense it with condenser. Remove excess moisture.
MTA have approximately 5 - 15 minutes' working time and 4 - 6 hours' setting time.
              mixing with sterile water                                                      smooth creamy mix



Pros-
Excellent sealing ability
Low solubility
Radioopaque
Biocompatible
Hydrophilic
High pH- 12.5
Bacteriostatic
Allows normal healing response
Allows formation of new cementum
Allows formation of new dentin
Least leakage


Cons-
Cost vise high in compare to CaoH
irreversible application

6 Tips to Improve Your Tooth Carving.

 Source : drpulp
STEP 1. Read and understand the tooth anatomy


  • Before your guide gives you the demonstration- first thing you must do is read the anatomy of that tooth. If you will go empty mind its difficult to absorb anything from demo.
  • While reading the anatomy make point wise notes of the each surface of tooth. Facial, lingual, Mesial etc.
  • My favorite book for dental anatomy is Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology and Occlusion use it. it's a must and best standard text book.
  • Don't rely on memory keep this notes and Wheeler's book beside you while you are carving the tooth.

STEP 2. Get proper instruments        

  • Get a good quality Lecron carver for yourself. While buying the carver check for the sharpness of carver, don't take blunt carvers.
  • A Metal scale ruler is best for measuring dimensions, vernier caliper can also be used for perfection.
  • Take good quality of carving wax it should neither be too soft or too hard. too soft will be distorted and too hard will be difficult to carve.

STEP 3. Keep an ideally carved tooth in front of you

  • Ask some one like your Teacher or fellow classmate or Senior Who are good at carving to do an Ideal tooth carving for you, This have two benefits- 
  • 1. You have an Ideal carving to look and learn,
  • 2.You get a extra Demo when you see your friend or senior carving the tooth. If no body is there to carve for you then get an Extracted tooth. 



Step 4. Start Carving

  • At the time when you start carving you should have good understanding of the anatomy of the tooth.
  • Start with gross carving of different surfaces - starting with facial then lingual, then mesial and distal, occlusal being the last.
  • While doing the gross carving keep measurements 1mm greater then what is needed this 1mm will be used in fine carving and finishing. 
  • After doing the gross carving, go for the fine carving for producing the details
  • Wipe the finished tooth with a piece of gauze. be careful not to apply pressure.

Step 5. Remove Distraction & Concentrate 



  • Find a comfortable place where there is least distraction.Carving needs lots of concentration,observation and learning don't take it casually.

Step 6. Do Imaginary carving

  • Just take a wax block and carve what ever comes in your mind, keep a model in front of you or just imagine and carve a sculpture.
  • This need not to be perfect or amazing, I ask you to do this because it have following benefits.
  • 1.You don't have to be perfect or follow any measurement so you carve with more relaxed mood. It will keep up the interest of carving.
  • 2.Yo start to learn the properties of wax- how much pressure to apply and how to remove and cut wax. what to do what not to do. its a basic process of learning.



 Practice, Practice, Practice

  • Keep on trying and practicing to carve, It can not be mastered in one day,
  • More you carve better you get.
  • When you practiced enough with certain tooth, help your friends if they ask for it, Don't carve to complete their quota but give them demo and share your learning.  

Monday, March 26, 2012

Dental Abscesses - What Are They And How Can You Prevent Them?




A tooth abscess is a collection of infected material (pus) resulting from a bacterial infection in the center of a tooth.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

A tooth abscess is a complication of tooth decay. It may also result from trauma to the tooth, such as when a tooth is broken or chipped. Openings in the tooth enamel allow bacteria to infect the center of the tooth (the pulp). Infection may spread out from the root of the tooth and to the bones supporting the tooth.
Infection results in a collection of pus (dead tissue, live and dead bacteria, white blood cells) and swelling of the tissues within the tooth. This causes a painful toothache. If the pulp of the tooth dies, the toothache may stop, unless an abscess develops. This is especially true if the infection remains active and continues to spread and destroy tissue.

Symptoms

The main symptom is a severe toothache. The pain is continuous and may be described as gnawing, sharp, shooting, or throbbing.
Other symptoms may include:
  • Bitter taste in the mouth
  • Breath odor
  • General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling
  • Fever
  • Pain when chewing
  • Sensitivity of the teeth to hot or cold
  • Swollen glands of the neck
  • Swollen area of the upper or lower jaw -- a very serious symptom

Signs and tests

The patient will feel pain when the dentist taps the tooth. Biting or closing the mouth tightly also increases the pain. The gums may be swollen and red and may drain thick material.

 

Treatment

The goals of treatment are to cure the infection, save the tooth, and prevent complications.
Antibiotics may be given to fight the infection. Warm salt-water rinses may be soothing. Over-the-counter pain relievers may relieve the toothache and fever.
Do NOT place aspirin directly over the tooth or gums, because this increases irritation of the tissues and can result in mouth ulcers.
A root canal may be recommended in an attempt to save the tooth.
If there is a severe infection, the tooth may be removed or surgery may be needed to drain the abscess. Some people may need to be admitted to the hospital.

Expectations (prognosis)

Untreated abscesses may get worse and can lead to life-threatening complications.
Prompt treatment usually cures the infection. The tooth can usually be saved in many cases.

Complications


Did you know there are two types of dental abscesses?

The first is a periapical abscess. This is where the abscess starts in the centre of the tooth (dental pulp). If you are not looking after your teeth, soon you could have tooth decay, where your tooth looses its protective layer of enamel. If you have tooth decay it is much easier for bacteria to get into the centre of the tooth and cause an infection which could then lead onto having an periapical abscess.

The second is a periodontal abscess, they can start in the areas around the teeth that support them, such as periodontium (between tooth and gum) and they can also follow on from gum disease. Gum disease is a swelling of tissues around the teeth which can cause the gum to come away from the tooth, therefore causing pockets to appear which bacteria can get into and potentially causing a periodontal abscess. If this is the case you will probably find you will have a swelling / inflammation next to that particular infected tooth. This type of abscess may also be caused by heavy of fast brushing to the teeth, if you do not brush your teeth gently you can risk damaging the gum or the periodontium.

To prevent against dental abscesses start looking after your teeth, good dental hygiene is the key. Brush your teeth twice a day for 2-3 minutes with a good toothpaste and brush, regularly floss, use mouthwash and get checked out by the dentist twice a year (every six months) Also think about cutting down or quitting smoking and look at what things you eat, the more sugary stuff you eat or drink the more chance there is of having tooth decay.

The signs of a dental abscess are toothaches, swelling of the gum or face, loose or tender teeth, feeling unwell, having a temperature and trouble with swallowing . If you feel you have an abscess in your mouth, you need to visit your dentist asap. He / She will drain the pus which can often relieve the pain, they will then advise you on any further measures you need to take. If left you are putting the health of your teeth and even yourself at risk, abscesses need treatment.

                                                           There is also gingival abscess wherein it involves only the gum tissue, without affecting the tooth or the periodontal ligament. Prevention is important because if untreated, severe abscess may become large and may worsen.
                                Braces can also cause dental abscesses when the wire hits the gums. It mostly happens to people who had their first time braces. Although, abscesses have a lot of remedies, it is still better visit your trusted dentist for consultation.

In summary Take Care Of Your Teeth.

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List of Dental Journals

This is a list of Dental journals ,some are free and some are not, but it will be surely helpful for you.regulary check back because ill keep updating and adding journals on this page.Bookmark the page by pressing [CRT+ D] so that you can find it easily when needed.


  1. Annals and essence of dentistry  
  2. The Journal of Implant & Advanced Clinical Dentistry - May 2010   
  3. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
  4. The orthodontic cyber journal
  5. Acta Odontológica Venezolana
  6. Angle Orthodontist
  7. Archives of Oral Biology
  8. Brazilian journal of oral sciences
  9. British Dental Journal
  10. British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
  11. Caries Research
  12. Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Journal
  13. Clinical Oral Investigations
  14. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
  15. CRANIO
  16. Current Orthodontic Journals
  17. Dental Advisor
  18. Dental Angle
  19. Dental Fax
  20. Dental Implant Summaries
  21. Dental Insights
  22. Dental Materials
  23. Dental World
  24. Dentevents
  25. Dentistry On-Line
  26. Dentistry99
  27. Dentistry online journal
  28. Egyptian Orthodontic Journal
  29. Endodontics & Dental Traumatology
  30. European Journal of Dental Education
  31. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
  32. Global Dental News Journal
  33. Greek orthodontic journal
  34. Implant Dentistry
  35. Implant News and Views
  36. International Endodontic Journal
  37. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
  38. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
  39. Journal of Continuing Dental Education
  40. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
  41. Journal of Dental Technology
  42. Journal of Dentistry
  43. Journal of Dentistry: Educational Technology Section
  44. Journal of Operative Dentistry
  45. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  46. Journal of Periodontology
  47. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
  48. Journal of the American College of Dentists
  49. Journal of the American Dental Association
  50. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
  51. List of journals in dentistry
  52. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde
  53. Oral Oncology
  54. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics
  55. Orthodontic journal search engine
  56. Orthodontic CYBERjournal
  57. Ortodoncia Española
  58. Orthodontic Cyber journal
  59. Pediatric Dentistry Journal
  60. The Pinnacle
  61. Revue de Stomatologie et de Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale
  62. Revue d'Orthopedie Dento-Faciale
  63. ZM-Online
  64. Index of Dental Journals 
  65. Electronic Journal

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