Cross sectional shape of the top of the bud tells their distribution.
Vallate: has a shallow 'V' at the top, so has a 'V' distribution at the back of the tongue.
Fungiform: top is round so it is towards the round end of the tongue.
Note vallate is also sometimes called circumvallate
In brief about Papillae
The majority of taste buds on the tongue sit on raised protrusions of the tongue surface called papillae. There are four types of papillae present in the human tongue:
Fungiform papillae - as the name suggests, these are slightly mushroom-shaped if looked at in longitudinal section. These are present mostly at the apex (tip) of the tongue, as well as at the sides. Innervated by facial nerve.
Foliate papillae - these are ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the roof of the mouth found on lateral margins. Innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae).
Circumvallate papillae - there are only about 10 to 14 of these papillae on most people, and they are present at the back of the oral part of the tongue. They are arranged in a circular-shaped row just in front of the sulcus terminalis of the tongue.
They are associated with ducts of Von Ebner's glands, and are innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.
It is generally accepted that there are five taste sensations:
Sweet, bitter, and savory (now sometimes called umami), which work with a signal through a G protein-coupled receptor.
Salty and sour, which work with ion channels.
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Physiology mnemonics, Dental physiology mnemonics, Taste buds mnemonics, papillae mnemonics, tongue taste buds mnemonics